Where do black holes lead to?

You are going to jump into a black hole, so there you are. What might possibly be in store for you if, despite all chances, you manage to survive? If you were able to climb your way back, where would you end up and what fascinating tales could you tell?

Professor Richard Massey clarifies that the straightforward response to each of these queries is, “Who knows?” Massey is fully aware of the depth of the black hole puzzles as a Royal Society research fellow at Durham University’s Institute for Computational Cosmology.

He explained that crossing an event horizon is equivalent to literally going beyond the veil since once someone has done so, no one would ever be able to communicate with them again. I don’t think somebody falling through would get anywhere because of the tremendous gravity, which would shatter them to bits.

It is understandable if it seems like a disappointing and painful response. It has been known that black holes form when a big star dies and leaves behind a small, dense remnant core ever since Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity was thought to have predicted black holes by coupling space-time with the action of gravity. If the mass of this core exceeds about three times that of the sun, gravity would be so strong that the black hole would collapse into a singularity, which is thought to be its infinitely dense core.

The ensuing uninhabitable black hole’s gravitational pull would be so strong that not even light could escape it. There is no way out if you end up at the event horizon, which is where light and matter can only pass inward, according to German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild. Massey claimed that tidal pressures would turn your body into strands of atoms, a process known as “spaghettification,” and that the thing would eventually be smashed at the singularity. It seems completely impossible that you could suddenly emerge anywhere, perhaps at the other side.


The potential that black holes could serve as wormholes to other galaxies has been studied by scientists over the years. They might even be a gateway to another universe, as some have speculated.


Such a notion has been around for a while; in 1935, Einstein and Nathan Rosen theorized space-time bridges that connect two distinct places. However, it received some new momentum in the 1980s when physicist Kip Thorne, one of the world’s foremost authorities on the astrophysical applications of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, sparked a debate regarding whether or not objects could actually move through them.


When I was younger, reading the well-known book about wormholes by Kip Thorne ignited my interest in physics, according to Massey. But the existence of wormholes doesn’t appear likely.


Indeed, in his book “The Science of Interstellar” (W.W. Norton and Company, 2014), Thorne, who provided his professional guidance to the Interstellar production team, stated: “We see no objects in our universe that could become wormholes as they age.” Travels through these hypothetical tunnels would probably stay the stuff of science fiction, according to Thorne, and there isn’t any solid proof that a black hole could permit such a trip.

Related Article: The Universe’s Strangest Black Holes


However, the issue is that we are unable get near enough to see for ourselves. As a matter of fact, nothing that occurs inside a black hole can be captured by a camera because light cannot escape their intense gravity. As it is, theory predicts that anything that crosses the event horizon is simply added to the black hole. In addition, because time appears to move incredibly slowly close to this limit, answers won’t be found anytime soon.

Professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University Douglas Finkbeiner stated, “I think the conventional story is that they lead to the end of time.” “A distant observer won’t witness their astronaut friend slipping into the black hole. As they grow closer to the event horizon, they will simply get redder and fainter due to gravitational red shift. However, the companion immediately plunges in, into whatever that implies beyond “forever.”

A BLACK HOLE COULD perhaps lead to a white hole.

There would undoubtedly need to be something opposite to black holes on the other side if they truly lead to another region of a galaxy or another universe. Igor Novikov, a Russian cosmologist, proposed the idea that this object might be a white hole in 1964. According to Novikov, a black hole connects to a white hole that once existed in the past. White holes, as contrast to black holes, permit the escape of light and matter but prevent their entry.

The probable relationship between black and white holes has continued to be studied by scientists. Scientists Carlo Rovelli and Hal M. Haggard asserted in their 2014 paper, which was published in the journal Physical Review D, that “there is a classic metric satisfying the Einstein equations outside a finite space-time region where matter collapses into a black hole and then emerges from a while hole.” In other words, black holes may vomit out the entirety of the matter they have consumed, and as they die, black holes may transform into white holes.

Instead of destroying the information it takes in, a black hole’s fall would be prevented. Instead, it would go through a quantum bounce, which would let information get out. If so, it would clarify a theory put out by Stephen Hawking, a theoretical physicist and former Cambridge University cosmologist who, in the 1970s, investigated the idea that black holes can release particles and radiation—thermal heat—as a result of quantum fluctuations.

“Hawking said a black hole doesn’t last forever,” Finkbeiner remarked. In his 1976 study that appeared in Physical Review D, Hawking predicted that the radiation would cause a black hole to lose energy, shrink, and evaporate. According to his beliefs, the black hole, upon its explosion, would destroy a lot of information because the radiation it would spew would be random and contain no information about what had fallen in.

Thus, Hawking’s hypothesis was in conflict with the assumption that information cannot be destroyed according to quantum theory. According to physics, information just gets harder to find since, if it were to disappear, it would be impossible to know the past or the future. The “black hole information paradox,” which sprang from Hawking’s theory, has long baffled physicists. Some have claimed that Hawking was just mistaken, and the scientist even admitted he was mistaken in 2004 at a scientific meeting in Dublin.

Do we then return to the idea that black holes emit preserved information that is then ejected via a white hole? Maybe. Jorge Pullin at Louisiana State University and Rodolfo Gambini at the University of the Republic in Montevideo, Uruguay, applied loop quantum gravity to a black hole in their 2013 study, which was published in Physical Review Letters. They discovered that gravity increased toward the core but decreased and flung anything entering into a different region of the universe. The findings strengthened the case for black holes acting as portals. Because there is no singularity in this study, there is no impenetrable barrier that crushes anything that comes into contact with it. Additionally, it implies that information doesn’t vanish.

Perhaps black holes lead nothing.

However, physicists James Sully, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski, and Ahmed Almheiri continued to think Hawking might have been right. They developed the AMPS firewall, often known as the black hole firewall hypothesis. According to their calculations, quantum physics could realistically transform the event horizon into a massive wall of fire, causing anything that came into contact with it to instantly catch fire. As a result of the fact that nothing could ever enter one, black holes inherently lead nowhere.

On the other hand, this goes against Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Since an object would be in free fall and, according to the equivalence principle, would not experience the harsh impacts of gravity, a human crossing the event horizon shouldn’t actually experience much suffering. Even if it didn’t violate Einstein’s principle, it would undercut quantum field theory or imply that information can be lost. It might adhere to the physical rules that govern other parts of the universe.


Move onward. Hawking yet again. He disregarded the idea of an event horizon in a research he released in 2014, claiming that gravitational collapse would instead create a ‘apparent horizon,’ which means there is nothing there to burn.

This horizon would last for a “period of time” and stop light rays from trying to escape the black hole’s center. According to his new understanding, seeming horizons initially hold onto matter and energy before eventually dissolving and releasing them. This idea, which states that information cannot be destroyed, is the greatest fit for this explanation, and if it were ever verified, it would imply that anything might escape from a black hole.

Hawking also suggested that black holes might not even exist. He suggested that black holes be reclassified as metastable bound states of the gravitational field. The apparent field would gravitationally advance inward but never reach the center and become consolidated within a dense mass since there would be no singularity.

However, nothing that is emitted will take the same shape as the data that was ingested. It would be hard to determine what went in by examining what is going out, which has challenges of its own, not the least of which would be for, example, a human who found themselves in such a worrying situation. They would never again feel the same!

There is no doubt that this specific conundrum will eat up a lot of research time for a very long period. Hawking’s paper on black holes and “soft hair” was published in 2018 and describes how zero-energy particles are left around the point of no return, the event horizon — an idea that suggests information is not lost but captured. Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto recently proposed that a component of dark matter could be formed by remnants of evaporated black holes.

This contradicted John Archibald Wheeler’s no-hair theorem, which was based on the idea that two black holes would be indistinguishable to an observer because none of the special particle physics pseudo-charges would be conserved. Although the concept has scientists talking, it will be some time before it is accepted as the solution to the question of where black holes lead. If only there was a way for us to jump into one.



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